By José Ignacio Hualde, Jon Ortiz de Urbina
Because the in simple terms surviving pre-Indo-European language of western Europe, Basque has frequently attracted the curiosity of linguists. while, typically, descriptive paintings on Basque has essentially involved in morphological beneficial properties, together with its advanced method of verb-argument contract and its strict ergative development of inflection, over the last twenty years a brand new iteration of Basque linguists has produced very subtle, theoretically-informed paintings on many features of the syntax, morphology and phonology of the language, revealing, for example, a technique of focalization with many attention-grabbing houses and the life in a few dialects of an accentual method strikingly just like that of normal eastern. The ebook, bringing jointly this collected wisdom at the constitution of Basque, is significantly extra whole than the other present grammar of the language. one other attention-grabbing characteristic of this grammar is that the outline is illustrated with fully-glossed examples extracted from quite a few written assets. even supposing the focal point is the trendy regular language, dialectal good points are thought of intimately and examples are taken from all dialects and sessions.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Basque
G. χοή 'bird'). g. tximino 'monkey\xdhal 'calf). Table 6. g. azal 'skin', izan 'to be', atzo 'yesterday', etzi 'day after tomorrow', etzan 'to lay', esan 'to say', osaba 'uncle', atso 'old woman', etsi 'to give up', otso 'wolf. g. axuri 'lamb', axeri 'fox' (also azeri), baxu 'short' (< OSp baxo), etxe 'house' (also etse), itxaso 'sea' (also itsaso). In some Bizkaian varieties (Lekeitio, for instance) where /s/ is systematically palatalized after [i] or [j], χ has become an allophone of I si in all instances and a preceding glide has developed in items where it did not belong historically.
Words presenting such alternants are for the most part borrowings. These facts seem to indicate that at an earlier time the contrast tended to be neutralized in initial position in favor of the voiced series. (c)Word-finally, the contrast between voiced and voiceless stops is neutralized. Only -k and -t occur word-finally (cf. g. Baztan, cf. g. nik [nik] ~ [ηϊγ] Ί, ERG'. 20 Phonology There are some morphophonological alternations of the type illustrated by dut Ί have it', dud-ala 'that I have it' vs.
Whereas the toponymy of these three provinces is overwhelmingly Basque (except for small western and southern areas), and Basque appears as the majority language of the region since medieval times, doubts remain as to whether Vardulians and Caristians spoke a language related to Basque. This is for two reasons. First of all, the epigraphic record of these provinces contains only Indo-European names. Secondly, some old toponyms and hydronyms of this area are not Basque, and appear to be Indo-European.
A Grammar of Basque by José Ignacio Hualde, Jon Ortiz de Urbina