By Andrey Yury Filchenko

A reference grammar of the endangered indigenous jap Khanty dialects of Vasyugan and Alexandrovo of the Uralic language kin has been constructed. The examine bases at the corpus of usual narrative discourse, and is decided in a normal cognitive-functional, usage-based version of language. the outline addresses the most styles of the japanese Khanty language procedure and provides a few typological contextualization of the reviewed language facts. the outline covers the problems in phonology, word-classes, morphology, syntax and semantics of straightforward and complicated clauses. within the quarter of phonology, such systematic positive factors as powerful backness vowel concord and consonant-vowel concord are analyzed within the articulatory gesture framework. Morphologically, the approach is agglutinating with suffixation dominant in derivation and inflection. Syntactically, jap Khanty styles as a standard SOV language. Occasional non-prototypical beneficial properties contain non-canonical argument marking alongside ergative trend opposed to the overall historical past of Nom-Acc procedure of GR association. In mapping of the pragmatic functions---to semantic roles---to grammatical kin, jap Khanty exhibits powerful choice in the direction of Topic-initiality, usually mapped onto Agent semantic function. This choice is still dominant in detransitivisation operations, the place the prototypical mapping is altered in the direction of Topic-Target-S that quite often has to do with the parenthetical demotion of pragmatic prestige of the Agent referent and merchandising of the non-Agent. research of japanese Khanty complicated clauses unearths powerful use of finite and non-finite (participial, infinitival and converbial) buildings as relative, adverbial and supplement clauses in typologically universal innovations of clause-linking. conventional discrete differentiation into subordinate and coordinate varieties according to morphosyntactic standards seems insufficient, divorced from the structural variety of the saw advanced clauses. Cognitive-functional procedure is used as an alternative, implying a common means of construal of associated occasions, attractive to cognitive relatives among states-of-affairs, instead of specific structural ability. This ends up in a continuum of combinable positive factors finding each one clause in terms of both the subordinate or coordinate prototypes. Clause-linkage options are on the topic of the pragmatic differentiation of data in utterances, with pragmatics, details structuring elements being on the middle of the excellence among the subordination and coordination.

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Lord 1960 and Parry 1971). It has been argued, though, that the literary representation of speech retains the essential orality of that speech: dialogue, in essence, provides direct access to orality in a written text (Martin 1989:10). Insofar as the Old English and the African-American vernacular English oral events are spoken and are represented as speech, both contain spoken discourse and can be compared on that basis. The pragmatic study of speech events opens a window on orality regardless of its presentation.

Like sounding, flyting is essentially a dialogic event composed of separate speech acts performed by two adversaries. Statement is followed by counterstatement until the last response terminates the duel. Onlookers to flyting participate as audience, although listeners tend not to replace performers the way they might in sounding. We can begin to analyze this dialogue by concentrating on the individual speeches that are made. A standard flyting sequence observes the form: claim, defense, and counterclaim (Clover 1980: 452).

Personal, individualized statements work best as insults, but they also have the greatest potential to incite violence. Ritualized or formulaic insults are the more customary weapon in the sounding game. The propositional content of ritualized insults differs from that of personalized insults. To satisfy the formula for the former, typically, Accusations are made about the opponent’s committing incest with his sister or mother, passive homosexuality is inferred, cowardice is suggested, taboos related to cleanliness are said to have been broken, and personal defects such as inferiority, stupidity, or crossed eyes are played upon (Foster 1986:216).

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A grammar of Eastern Khanty by Andrey Yury Filchenko

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