By Maarten Mous

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The glottal stop is deleted in the singular because it is followed by a consonant, kwa>l-o>o -+ kwalo'o, but the glottal stop appears in the plural form: kwa'l-i. 5. The suffix -'i (n). The epenthetic vowel preceding the suffix >i assimilates to i. 'awtu (m) 1 'awti>i (n) 'aymu (m) 1 'aymi'i (n) baaba (m) I baabi>i (n) daram (m) I darami>i (n) mugul (m) I mugli>i (n) kalaamu (m) I kalami>i (n) mother heel grandmother, old woman monkey word, utterance father cask, barrel (Sw) · collar bone pen (Sw) Three words have a singular that is not masculine but feminine: diq(a)ma (f) I diqeemi (n) durmi (f) I dureemi (n) kwalo>o (f) I kwa>eeli (n) wakri (f) I wakeeri (n) fence for cattle stomach widow chin following plural suffixes, numbered from 7 to 14, are restricted to lexemes with a feminine base form in the singular.

To some extent the choice of the plural suffix can be related to the gender of the singular and to the suffix of the 47 46 plural suffixes with a masculine base noun singular. 3. Number and gender Each number suffix has its own gender: (m), (f), or (n). e aawe ma' >i Gender is nearly always different between singular and plural. This is a common feat of Cushitic languages; it is often called polarity of gender. It should be noted that Iraqw the difference in gender for singular and plural is not polar.

55 54 angamiiya (f) I gaamiydu (n) bak6ora (f) I bakooradu (n) chumba (f) I chumbadu (n) deebe (f) I deebadu (n) afay (f) I afaydu (n) cayma (f) 1 caymadu (n) bunqa (f) I bunqadu (n) deeqwa (f) I deeqwadu (n) eeka (f) I eekadu (n) gacale (f) I gacaledu (n) gali (f) I galidu (n) gidaaba (f) I gidabadu (n) gixsa (f) I gixsad u (n) hhayuma (f) I hhayumadu (n) koopo (f) I kopodu (n) lo>o (f) I lo>odu (n) ma'aye (f) I ma'aydu (n) makaasi (f) I makaasd u (n) malo (f) I malodu (n) meesa (f) ,I mees(a)du (n) maslaaba (f) I maslabadu (n) cooco (f) I coocoodu (n) camel (Sw) walking stick with handle (Sw) room (Sw) tin can (Sw) side eating muddy place in valley razor acre (Sw) bow Turraea mombassana sense, reason (Da) village (archaic) temporary return to parents cup (Sw) cock's comb medicine of purification panga (f) I pangadu (n) qatsoca (f) I qatsocadu (n) qooma (f) I qoomadu (n) shuule (f) I shuul(a)du (n) siptaali (f) I siptaaldu (n) ti,ita (f) I ti>itadu (n) tlanka (f) I tlankadu (n) tsaxra (f) I tsaxradu (n) tsiinqa (f) I tsinqadu (n) tsirxa (f) I tsirxadu (n) xuumpa (f) I xumpadu (n) xwanxwa (f) I xwanxwadu (n) scissors (Sw) small girls table (Sw) cross (Sw) excrement sword (Sw) crotch period school (Sw) hospital (Sw) tale bridge arrow for bleeding cattle small stream, spring gap, small window cold, throat affliction bridge of the nose kafya (f) I kafyadu (n) tsahhame (f) I tsahhamadu (n) kwahlee1na (f) I kwahleemadu (n) hat (Sw) chaff case, affair, consult For one word the singular is neuter and not feminine: xweera (n) I xweer(a)du (n) night is an epenthetic a in harimadu 'discipline' from hariim 'to be due, proper' and in some loan words.

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A grammar of Iraqw by Maarten Mous


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