By Chet A. Creider, Jane Tapsubei Creider
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Such morphologically conditioned alternations may also aVect consonants (Lieber 1987, 2000). English has cases of consonant modiWcation as well, for instance defend–defence, oVend–oVence, belief–believe, and proof–prove. An interesting kind of non-concatenative morphology is found in, among others, Semitic languages: root-and-pattern morphology. The basis of each lexeme is a skeleton of consonants, in most cases three, which functions as the root of the lexeme. The abstract pattern of consonants is combined with one or more vowels which are intertwined with the sequence of consonants.
The citation form is the form in which a word is mentioned when we talk about it, and the form in which it is listed in a dictionary. In many languages, the inWnitive is the citation form of a verb. sg form is the citation form of nouns. Each of these Polish inWnitives consists of a root, followed by a verbalizing morpheme that turns the root into a stem, and is followed by the inWnitival ending -c´. It is the stem-forms that are used when new words are derived from these verbs. Stem-forming suYxes play an important role in many Indo-European languages.
The vowel patterns that are intercalated with the consonantal skeletons are called transWxes since they are spread across the consonantal sequence. 38 what is linguistic morphology? (18) Pattern Root g-d-l Root k-t-b CaCaC hiCCiC CCiCa miCCaC haCCaCa gadal ‘‘grow, get bigger’’ higdil ‘‘enlarge’’ gdila ‘‘growth’’ migdal ‘‘tower’’ hagdala ‘‘enlargement’’ katav ‘‘write’’ hixtiv ‘‘dictate’’ ktiva ‘‘writing’’ mixtav ‘‘letter, missive’’ haxtava ‘‘dictation’’ The morphological structure of the words in (18) can be represented as the linking between three diVerent morphemes.
A grammar of Nandi by Chet A. Creider, Jane Tapsubei Creider