By Phyllis Deane, Jessica Kuper

ISBN-10: 0203990277

ISBN-13: 9780203990278

ISBN-10: 0415002346

ISBN-13: 9780415002349

A useful paintings which serves as an advent to the topic and as a reference for all those that have to stay up to date with fiscal pondering.

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Extra info for A Lexicon of Economics (Social Science Lexicons)

Example text

Pincus, J. (1967), Trade, Aid and Development, New York. Antitrust Legislation Capitalist economies rely primarily on free markets to allocate resources efficiently and make suppliers responsive to consumer preferences. If individual businesses or combinations of suppliers (cartels) are able to restrict output and raise prices, resources will be misallocated and consumer choice may be limited. For these reasons, most countries with free market economies have some form of law or regulation aimed at preventing or curbing undue exercise of monopoly power.

The measures that have been imposed on banks include control of their interest rates, primary and secondary requirements on holdings of reserves with the central bank and of government securities, limitation of the amount of credit extended, and control over the direction of credit. Many of these measures built on constraints that the banks had previously observed on their own initiative for prudential reasons. Banking is a business that depends completely on the confidence of the public, and for the most part banks have always been very careful not to endanger that confidence.

Under Article 85 of the Treaty of Rome, all agreements and concerted practices restricting competition within the common market are prohibited as ‘incompatible with the common market’, and Article 86 prohibits ‘any abuse by one or more undertakings of a dominant position within the common market…’. At first sight these provisions look similar to the clear rules of law of the Sherman Act and they are enforced by decisions of the European Court. There are, however, significant differences. Article 85(3) provides that agreements may be exempted from the general prohibition where they promote technical or economic progress and do not affect competition unduly.

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A Lexicon of Economics (Social Science Lexicons) by Phyllis Deane, Jessica Kuper

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