By Sandra A. Thompson
Wappo is an indigenous language, quite often considered as a language isolate, which was spoken within the Russian River Valley, simply north of San Francisco, California. This reference grammar is predicated at the speech of Laura Fish Somersal, its final fluent speaker, who died in 1990, and represents the main vast information and grammatical examine ever performed in this language. The grammar specializes in morphosyntax, rather nominal, verbal, and clausal constructions and clause combining styles, from a functional/typological standpoint.
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Extra info for A Reference Grammar of Wappo (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
8 Non-referential Noun Phrases Non-referential noun phrases may not occur with demonstratives, as expected, but they do take case suffixes. 1 Personal pronouns Pronouns show the case forms given in Table 3-1. The other cases are formed by adding the appropriate suffix to the unmarked (accusative) root (further discussion can be found in Sawyer 1991). Table 3-1. Case Forms for Personal Pronouns Nominative Unmarked (Accusative) 1st sg pl 2nd sg pl 3rd sg ah isi miʔ misi (distal) i isa mi misa pl cephi (distal) ceko:ti (proximal) hephi (proximal) heko:ti te (distal) ceko:to (proximal) heko:to Examples of these forms can be found throughout this grammar.
Simple states (9) i meʔ - i husoha - khiʔ 1SG hand - NOM tired ‘my hand is tired’ (12) (10) mey - i šoy'i:ya: - khiʔ water - NOM hot ‘the water is hot’ (23) (11) šeʔ - - STAT ti - STAT eniya c'iti - khali - khiʔ he - hinta wind - NOM very bone - like - STAT DEM - day ‘the wind is strong today’ (27) (12) lel - i ceta wil - khiʔ rock - NOM there sit - STAT ‘the rock is over there’ (337) (13) c'ic' - i č'ep'iš nahwelis - khiʔ bird - NOM worm hold:in:mouth - STAT ‘the bird is holding the worm in its mouth’ (203) B.
3 Dative: -thu The dative case suffix is used for recipients, and to indicate direction. ’ (341) (27) cephi isa - ma o - mehwil - taʔ 3SG:NOM 1PL - BENEF UOP ‘s/he told us the story’ (32) tell - PST The use of -ma in the following elicited example may be due to the influence of English. 7 Genitive: -meʔ The genitive suffix, as in many languages, is used only with expressions of alienable possession. 2 above). The inalienable possession construction is found with body parts, kin terms (except for ek'a ‘son’, and ok'o:to ‘children’ which inexplicably occur with either the suffixed or unsuffixed form), words for ‘friend’, and some (apparently important) material possessions, such as čhuya ‘house’: (39) c'ic'a khap - keʔte - khiʔ i bird wing - NOM broken - STAT ‘the bird’s wing is broken’ (65) (40) te pheʔ - i tuč'a - khiʔ 3SG foot - NOM big - STAT ‘his/her foot is big’ (j41) (41) i yawe ah huhkal - taʔ 1SG name 1SG:NOM remember - PST ‘I remembered my name’ (74) (42) cephi me č'a - kek'i - ya:miʔ ew 3SG:NOM 3SG husband DIR - leave - FUT ‘she’s going to leave her husband’ (705) BUT: (43) te - meʔ ok'o:t - i natuy' - siʔ 3SG - GEN children - NOM believe - DUR ‘his/her children believe (it)’ (58) Finally, here is a minimal pair illustrating the difference in interpretation between an alienably and an inalienably possessed noun: 16 The Noun Phrase (44) a.
A Reference Grammar of Wappo (University of California Publications in Linguistics) by Sandra A. Thompson