By Geoffrey N. Leech

Книга рассчитана на все группы пользователей, так как описывает базовые принципы английской грамматики. В книге в простой форме описываются все базовые правила языка, кроме того для всех грамматическим терминов даны пояснения и описания так, что даже новичку будет несложно разобраться в правилах языка. Дополнительным плюсом является использование общераспространенных тем, которые обычно не встречаются в других книгах: как извиниться или поблагодарить в той или иной ситуации, какие существуют нюансы.

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D. 106-272 Semi-autonomous kingdom at Palmyra 334-634 Capital of Roman Empire moves to Byzantium; Syria ruled by Christian emperors 634-641 Arab Muslim conquests 632-661 Rightly guided caliphs 661-750 Umayyad caliphate 750-1258 Abbasid caliphate 868-905 Tulunid rule 905-935 Restoration of Abbasid rule 935-969 Ikhshidid rule 944-1016 Hamdanid dynasty (northern Syria) Page xxi 978-1078 Fatimid dynasty (southern Syria) 1016-1023 Fatimids rule northern Syria 1023-1079 Mirdasid dynasty (northern Syria) 1079-1104 Saljuk rule in Damascus 1086-1113 Saljuk rule in Aleppo 1098-1303 Crusades 1104-1171 Atabegs in Damascus 1128-1171 Atabegs in Aleppo 1171-1260 Ayyubid dynasty 1260-1516 Mamluk sultanate 1516-1918 Ottoman dynasty 1725-1783 Azm governors 1775-1804 Ahmad al-Jazzar 1831-1840 Egyptian occupation 1839-1876 Tanzimat era 1850 Communal massacre in Aleppo 1860 Communal massacre in Damascus 1876-1909 Reign of Sultan Abdulhamid II 1876 December Ottoman constitution promulgated Page xxii 1878 February Abdulhamid suspends the constitution 1908 July Military mutiny to restore constitution 1908-1918 Constitutional Era 1914 Ottoman Empire enters World War I on side of Entente 1914/15 Husayn-McMahon Correspondence: Britain pledges to support an independent Arab kingdom in exchange for a revolt against Ottoman rule in Arabia 1916 May Sykes-Picot Accord between France and Britain to partition Arab lands of the Ottoman Empire into spheres of influence June Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule 1918 October Allies defeat Ottomans and end Ottoman rule in Syria; Amir Faysal forms an Arab government 1920-1946 French Mandate 1920 April San Remo Agreement assigns France the League of Nations mandate for Syria July French army occupies Aleppo; battle of Maysalun; French occupation of Damascus September France creates Greater Lebanon by detaching portions of Syrian territory and incorporating them into Lebanon; divides Syria into Page xxiii separate states centered on Damascus and Aleppo; establishes separate regime for the Alawis 1922 France establishes separate regime for Jabal Druze 1925 France combines Damascus, Aleppo, Homs, and Hama into a single administrative unit 1925-1927 The Great Revolt 1928 April-June Elections to constituent assembly; National Bloc minority dominates proceedings July Constituent Assembly publishes draft constitution August France rejects draft constitution, adjourns the assembly 1929 February France prorogues constituent assembly 1930 May France approves modified version of constituent assembly's constitution as basis for national elections to parliament 1931-1932 December/January National elections to parliament; National Bloc wins 17 of 69 seats 1933 November France temporarily suspends parliament for rejecting France's proposal for a treaty Page xxiv 1936 January-March General strike throughout Syria in response to French crackdown on the National Bloc; strike ends in victory for the Bloc when the French invite its leaders to Paris to negotiate a treaty April-September Negotiations on Franco-Syrian Treaty to provide mechanisms for Syria's eventual independence and admittance to the League of Nations November National elections to parliament, huge victory for National Bloc December Parliament elects Hashim al-Atasi president of the republic; Jamil Mardam appointed prime minister; parliament ratifies treaty with France; Jabal Druze and Territory of the Alawis are incorporated into Syria 1937 November League of Nations places Alexandretta Province under a special autonomous regime with tenuous formal links to Syria 1938 July Franco-Turkish Friendship Treaty guarantees Turkey's neutrality in the event of aggression against France; Turkey allowed to introduce troops to Alexandretta December French parliament refuses to act on the Franco-Syrian Treaty, effectively killing it 1939 February Mardam government resigns June Turkey formally annexes Alexandretta Page xxv July High Commissioner suspends constitution, dissolves parliament, restores separate administrations for Jabal Druze, Latakia, and Jazira 1939-1945 World War II 1940 December Vichy administration established in Syria 1941 June-July Allied invasion of Syria and Lebanon to remove Vichy administration; Britain becomes dominant military power in Syria October Free French restore constitutional government 1942 February France reunites Jabal Druze and Latakia to the rest of Syria 1943 July National elections result in huge victory for National Party; Shukri al-Quwwatli becomes president 1945 May Anti-French demonstrations by crowds seeking Syrian independence May 29-30 French bombardment of Damascus kills 400 Syrians; British forces wrest control from the French 1946 April 17 France withdraws troops from Syria 1946-1958 Syrian Republic Page xxvi 1947 Founding of Ba'th Party by Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar 1948 War with Israel 1949 March 30 Military coup by Husni al-Za'im July 20 Armistice with Israel August 14 Military coup by Sami al-Hinnawi November 15-16 Election of constituent assembly December 19 Military coup by Adib al-Shishakli 1950 February Akram al-Hawrani forms Arab Socialist Party September New constitution promulgated 1951 November Shishakli dismisses civilian government 1952 April Shishakli bans all political parties 1953 July Shishakli elected president in plebiscite 1954 February Shishakli overthrown; civilian democratic regime and 1950 constitution restored September National elections increase strength of neutralist and leftist trends Page xxvii 1955 February Formation of the Baghdad Pact, a prowestern military alliance between Iraq and Turkey; political pressures on Syria to join the alliance April Assassination of Col.

For the next four hundred years, Syria was part of a vast empire that ruled over much of southeastern Europe, the central Arab lands down to the Indian Ocean, Egypt, and North Africa to the frontier of Morocco. In the context of Syrian history the Ottoman era is conspicuous for bringing security from invasion and a long period of uninterrupted dynastic rule. Under these conditions Syria enjoyed a long period of stability and prosperity reflected in population growth, urban florescence, and expansion of the margins of cultivation.

Occasionally, Sunni rulers would try to impose their authority, but in general it was not until the twentieth century that the Druzes, the Alawis, and the Arab and Kurdish inhabitants of the Jazira lost their communal autonomy. The political integration of Syria's diverse population under urban Sunni domination occurred during the French Mandate and early independence years. Since the 1960s, provincial Sunnis and members of minorities have turned the tables by seizing power through control over the military and the Ba'th party.

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An A-Z of English Grammar and Usage by Geoffrey N. Leech

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