By Paul R. Kroeger
Protecting either syntax (the constitution of words and sentences) and morphology (the constitution of words), this ebook equips scholars with the instruments and techniques had to examine grammatical styles in any language. scholars are proven tips on how to use common notational units corresponding to word constitution timber and word-formation principles, in addition to prose descriptions. Emphasis is put on evaluating the various grammatical structures of the world's languages, and scholars are inspired to perform the analyses via a various variety of challenge units and routines.
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Additional resources for Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics)
We normally try to assign each position in the chart a label which expresses the grammatical category or function that is shared by all the elements in that position class (in this case, “possessor”). Notice that we have not listed the root morphemes in their column. This is because roots belong to an open class (in this case, the class of common countable nouns). Even though only five roots are found in this corpus, in principle any number of other roots could occur in the same position, and it would be impossible to list them all.
14) Isthmus Zapotec (Mexico; Merrifield et al. 1987, prob. 9): igiluʔ ‘your chin’ n˜ ee ‘foot’ ka˜nee ‘feet’ ka igidu ‘our chins’ ike ‘shoulder’ n˜ eebe ‘his foot’ ikebe ‘his shoulder’ ka˜neebe ‘his feet’ ka ikeluʔ ‘your shoulders’ n˜ eeluʔ ‘your foot’ ka˜neetu ‘your (pl) feet’ diaga ‘ear’ ka˜needu ‘our feet’ kadiagatu ‘your (pl) ears’ igi ‘chin’ kadiagadu ‘our ears’ biʃ ozedu ‘our father’ ka igi ‘chins’ igibe ‘his chin’ biʃ ozetu ‘your (pl) father’ ka igitu ‘your (pl) chins’ kabiʃ ozetu ‘your (pl) fathers’ (15) ro o t s n˜ ee igi ike diaga biʃ oze ‘foot’ ‘chin’ ‘shoulder’ ‘ear’ ‘father’ affixes ka– (pl.
E Orang tua itu makan pisang. ’ f Ahmad makan ikan besar itu. ’ Almost certainly, you would make the divisions in the places marked in (8). Why? g. ). Since a single word is obviously a “unit” of some kind, the phrases which can be substituted in the same position should also be units of the same kind. Moreover, each of these phrases forms a semantic unit: orang tua itu refers to a single, specific, individual. And, although it contains three words, the phrase bears only one g r a m m at i c a l r e l at i o n in sentence (7e), namely subject (see chapter 4).
Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics) by Paul R. Kroeger