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She was responsible for campaigns that recovered Leicester and Derby from Viking rule, and her military power was such that the Danish settlers at York sought her as their “lord” and Welsh kings submitted to her. As a king did, she granted land by charter in her own name. This extraordinary personal rule continued the power she had possessed and exercised during her husband’s lifetime. By 900 her name was already associated with his in joint grants of land. The political situation of the late ninth and early 10th centuries was crucial to her singular role.

D’Ailly played a prominent part at the Council of Pisa in 1409, which elected a new pope, Alexander V (r. 1409–10). In 1411 Alexander’s successor, John XXIII (r. 1410–15), made d’Ailly a cardinal. When the rival popes (Benedict and John) refused to resign, however, the Council of CONSTANCE (1414–18) was called. An acknowledged leader, d’Ailly helped effect the decision to have the contending popes abdicate. The council then elected a new pope, Martin V, and the schism ended. D’Ailly himself became a candidate for the papal throne, but he lost the election because of opposition from France’s enemies, England and Burgundy.

Adrian IV (Hadrian, Nicholas Breakspear) (ca. 1100– 1159) English pope Nicholas Breakspear was born at Abbot’s Langley near Saint Albans about 1100 and educated at Paris. He later served as an abbot of a monastery near Avignon in southern France. Pope Eugenius III appointed him cardinal bishop of Albano before 1150 and charged him with a mission to SWEDEN in 1152. Elected pope on December 4, 1154, he took the name Adrian IV. After extracting concessions on papal temporal authority, in 1155 he crowned as emperor FREDERICK I Barbarossa, who then helped him to eliminate the heretical and political threat to papal control of Rome presented by Arnold of Brescia (d.

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