By B. Sunday Eiselt
The tale of 1 of the longest-lived and so much profitable nomadic enclaves in North the US presents an extraordinary glimpse into the cloth expressions of Apache self-determination and survival. for almost two hundred years the Jicarilla Apache of latest Mexico thrived within the interstices of Pueblo and Spanish settlements following their expulsion from the Plains. serious to their luck used to be their skill to increase key features of Plains-Pueblo alternate to Indian and mixed-blood groups at the fringes of colonial rule. greater than different nomadic tribes, the Jicarilla performed an immense position in maintaining jointly the social textile of latest Mexican villages after the autumn of the Spanish Empire.
This entire learn by way of Sunday Eiselt starts with the nice Athapaskan migration out of Canada in the course of prehis-toric instances and ends with the compelled payment of the Jicarilla at the Dulce reservation within the Eighteen Eighties. Eiselt combines archaeological and ethnohistorical information in an exam of Jicarilla suggestions for self-preservation. She unearths the ideological and political imperatives of “belonging” that formed their interactions with neighborhood groups and the kingdom and that enabled them to prevent reservation lifestyles good into the Eighteen Eighties. all through their lengthy historical past, Jicarilla identification remained intact, special, and discernable whilst existence at the reservation disrupted the intimate connections that after existed with their Hispanic and Pueblo neighbors.
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Additional info for Becoming White Clay: A History and Archaeology of Jicarilla Apache Enclavement
Barth’s work among the Basseri underscores the relevance of theorizing movement and not just migration when enclavement involves mobile people. Summary Enclavement ultimately involves a process whereby nomadic societies become encapsulated or incorporated into a multiethnic setting. This process has a history and structure that is evident in the political and ecological strategies nomads employ to adjust to the long-term effects of colonization. From an archaeological standpoint, evidence for interethnic exchange is just one piece of a larger puzzle.
Communal hunting generates extended periods of intensive work for women, who are largely responsible for transforming the raw materials of the hunt into finished products. This includes hide and meat processing as well as the production and decoration of clothing, housing, bedding, and pack equipment. Families that could secure the cooperation of women in these endeavors would have had a distinct advantage in trade, as would those women who could foster and mobilize their social capital (their influence) to maximize family output.
Instead, North American archaeologists, informed by the postcolonial and Marxist theories of the 1960s, tend to emphasize major upheavals leading to rapid change and the hybrid nature of cultural formations in colonial settings. Not surprisingly, ethnicity is seen not only as a product of state contact but as an emergent property of all colonial encounters. Terms such as “ethnogenesis” (Sturtevant 1971), “transculturation” or “mestizaje” (Deagan 1998), “creolization” (Hannerz 1987), and “hybridity” (Bhabha 1992) emphasize the negotiated emergence of new composite identities, blended genealogies, and mixed heritages that result from widespread demographic displacements (Stein 2005:26).
Becoming White Clay: A History and Archaeology of Jicarilla Apache Enclavement by B. Sunday Eiselt