By Robert Pickering, Kit Eason
This ebook is a smart beginning for exploring functional-first programming and its function in the way forward for program improvement. The best-selling creation to F#, now completely up-to-date to model 4.0, may help you research the language and discover its new features.
F# 4.0 is a mature, open resource, cross-platform, functional-first programming language which empowers clients and organisations to take on advanced computing issues of basic, maintainable and powerful code. F# can also be an absolutely supported language in visible Studio and Xamarin Studio. different instruments helping F# improvement comprise Emacs, MonoDevelop, Atom, visible Studio Code, chic textual content, and Vim.
Beginning F#4.0 has been completely up to date that can assist you discover the recent gains of the language including:
- Type Providers
- Constructors as top notch functions
- Simplified use of mutable values
- Support for high-dimensional arrays
- Slicing syntax aid for F# lists
Reviewed through Don Syme, the manager architect of F# at Microsoft examine, Beginning F#4.0 is a smart origin for exploring sensible programming and its position sooner or later of software development.
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Additional info for Beginning F# 4.0
34 CHAPTER 3 ■ FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING Another useful feature of pattern matching is that you can combine two patterns into one rule through the use of the vertical bar (|). The following code, stringToBoolean, demonstrates this: // function for converting a Boolean to a string let booleanToString x = match x with false -> "False" | _ -> "True" // function for converting a string to a Boolean let stringToBoolean x = match x with | "True" | "true" -> true | "False" | "false" -> false | _ -> failwith "unexpected input" // call the functions and print the results printfn "(booleanToString true) = %s" (booleanToString true) printfn "(booleanToString false) = %s" (booleanToString false) printfn "(stringToBoolean \"True\") = %b" (stringToBoolean "True") printfn "(stringToBoolean \"false\") = %b" (stringToBoolean "false") printfn "(stringToBoolean \"Hello\") = %b" (stringToBoolean "Hello") The first two rules have two strings that should evaluate to the same value, so rather than having two separate rules, you can just use | between the two patterns.
It is easy to inadvertently write a recursive function that never terminates. Although intentionally writing a program that does not terminate is sometimes useful, it is rarely the goal when trying to perform calculations. To ensure that recursive functions terminate, it is often useful to think of recursion in terms of a base case and a recursive case: • The recursive case is the value for which the function is defined in terms of itself. For the function fib, this is any value other than 1 and 2.
Notice how on the fifth line, the function makes two calls to itself as part of its own definition. 28 CHAPTER 3 ■ FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING // a function to generate the Fibonacci numbers let rec fib x = match x with | 1 -> 1 | 2 -> 1 | x -> fib (x - 1) + fib (x - 2) // call printfn printfn printfn the function and print the results "(fib 2) = %i" (fib 2) "(fib 6) = %i" (fib 6) "(fib 11) = %i" (fib 11) This example, when executed, returns the following: (fib 2) = 1 (fib 6) = 8 (fib 11) = 89 This function calculates the nth term in the Fibonacci sequence.
Beginning F# 4.0 by Robert Pickering, Kit Eason