By Kara Rogers

ISBN-10: 1615301011

ISBN-13: 9781615301010

ISBN-10: 1615302492

ISBN-13: 9781615302499

The seeming simplicity of day by day move can belie the complexity of the constructions that facilitate movement. greater than only a framework round which the physique develops, the human skeleton has advanced over the years to permit people to stroll and stand upright. muscle mass likewise practice more than a few features, with out which the physique couldn't deal with. This complete booklet info the anatomy and mechanisms that let bones and muscle tissues to function certainly and examines the results of illness and harm on those basic elements of the human physique.

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Extra resources for Bone and Muscle: Structure, Force, and Motion (The Human Body)

Sample text

The osteoblasts deposit new bone matrix in layers around the trabeculae, which thus enlarge at the expense of the spaces between them. Eventually the spaces are eliminated, and immature compact bone is produced. Epiphyses Each epiphysis at the end of a long bone ossifies separately from the bone shaft but becomes fixed to the shaft when full growth is attained. The epiphysis is made of cancellous bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone. Prior to full skeletal maturity the epiphysis is separated from the metaphysis by a cartilaginous plate called the growth 49 7 Bone and Muscle 7 plate or physis; in bones with complex articulations (such as the humerus at its lower end) or bones with multiple protuberances (such as the femur at its upper end) there may be several separate epiphyses, each with its own growth plate.

The flaring upper part of the girdle is the ilium; the lower anterior part, meeting with its fellow at the midline, is the pubis; and the lower posterior part is the ischium. Each ischial bone has a prominence, or tuberosity, and it is upon these tuberosities that the body rests when seated. The components of the girdle of the upper extremity, the pectoral girdle, are the shoulder blade, or scapula, and the collarbone, or clavicle. The head of the humerus, the long bone of the upper arm, fits into the glenoid cavity, a depression in the scapula.

This cell differentiation requires a regular supply of blood, without which cartilage-forming chondroblasts, rather than osteoblasts, are formed. The osteoblasts produce many cell products, including the enzymes alkaline phosphatase and collagenase, growth factors, hormones such as osteocalcin, and collagen, part of the organic unmineralized component of the bone called osteoid. Eventually the osteoblast is surrounded by the growing bone matrix, and, as the material calcifies, the cell is trapped in a space called a lacuna.

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Bone and Muscle: Structure, Force, and Motion (The Human Body) by Kara Rogers


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