By Leonard Warren
Certain carbohydrates are a big and interesting subject in biochemical and melanoma study. in accordance with a chain of invited lectures, this ebook specializes in the particular position that certain carbohydrates play in nature and mirror the author's amazing occupation in biochemical study. another subject matters lined are the houses of membrane glycoproteins, eager about the resistance of cells to medicinal drugs, and the metabolism of sugars and sialic acids, either one of which shape a pivotal function within the author's stories. The booklet chronicles just a few of the massive advances which have been made in biochemistry over the last few a long time.
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Extra info for Bound Carbohydrates in Nature (Lezioni Lincee)
It is apparent that the concentrations of intermediates are tightly regulated. The conversion of UDP-Af-acetylglucosamine to mannosamine is the first step committed to the formation of sialic acid, while CMP-sialic acid is the final product of the sequence, prior to transfer of sialic acid to various lipids or glycoproteins. As another example of feedback inhibition, it has been found that CMP-sialic acid is an effective inhibitor of UDP-Af-acetylglucosamine 2'-epimerase, the enzyme that forms mannosamine, the first product specific for sialic acid metabolism (Reaction 12).
An outline of the many reactions involving the hexosamines and sialic acids is seen in Scheme 2. All nine carbon atoms of sialic acid are derived from glucose and find their way into neuraminic acid through the intermediates of glycolysis, fructose1-phosphate (C4-9) and phosphoenolpyruvate (Cl-3). Glucose enters the glycolytic path by a hexokinase catalyzed phosphorylation at C-6 (Scheme 2, Reaction 1). The hexose becomes an aminosugar by the amination of fructose-6-phosphate catalyzed by glucosamine-6-phosphate synthetase (Reaction 2), mainly in the liver.
GlcNAc, Af-acetyl-D-glucosamine; Man, D-mannose; Glc, D-glucose; P, phosphate. isopentenyl pyrophosphate units. The terminal hydroxyl is phosphorylated by a dolichol kinase and ATP is the phosphate donor. The molecule is about 10 run long, which is considerably greater than the thickness of a lipid bilayer with which it is associated during its functioning. It is likely that it wraps itself around or covers the saccharide component to facilitate traversal of cytoplasmic membranes. The Af-grycosylation pathway begins with the stepwise formation of an oligosaccharide-lipid intermediate, dolichol-P-P-(GlcNAc)2Man9Glc3, according to Scheme 8 (Struck and Lennarz, 1980).
Bound Carbohydrates in Nature (Lezioni Lincee) by Leonard Warren