By Salvador Garrigues; Miguel da la Guardia
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Three major applications of retrieved trace gases and aerosols by satellite remote sensing are available: forecast of events that aﬀect air quality, interference of surface air quality itself (particulate matter, NO2, O3 and CO), and estimates of surface emissions (NOx, VOCs, CO and aerosol sources). The availability of remote sensing technology also contributed to the decision of the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels.
2 mm2) and a long focal length (248 mm). The resulting Raman spectra are much less sensitive to morphological variation of the sample bottles, and the high incident laser spot provides a reproducibility enhancement. Additionally, the use of an isobutyric anhydride external standard in front of the plastic bottles makes it possible to correct Raman intensity and reduce laser ﬂuctuations. This WAI scheme with the use of a synchronous external standard has the potential to allow Raman spectroscopy to be used for quality control (QC) analysis for a wide range of liquid samples contained in glass (clear or amber) or plastic containers.
The last TOMS was deactivated in 2007, but the new generation of ozone monitoring instruments (OMI) has satisfactorily replaced them. 1 gives some examples of satellite instruments designed for remote sensing of aerosols and chemically reactive trace gases in the lower troposphere. Satellite remote sensing is not limited to surface air quality. 1 Chapter 2 Some examples of satellite remote sensing instruments used for air quality control. Instrument MOPITT MISR MODIS AIRS SCIAMACHY OMI TES PARASOL CALIOP GOME-2 IASI Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography Ozone Monitoring Instrument Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer Polarization & Anisotropy of Reﬂectances for Atmospheric Sciences Coupled with Observations from a Lidar Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Ortogonal Polarization Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer Platform Measurement period from Terra 2000 Terra 2000 Terra Aqua Aqua ENVISAT 2000 2002 2002 2002 Aura Aura 2004 2004 PARASOL 2004 CALIPSO 2006 MeteOp 2006 MeteOp 2006 This is a very important tool for ecologists and conservation biologists, as it oﬀers new ways to approach their research in order to provide scientiﬁc responses to environmental changes.
Challenges in Green Analytical Chemistry by Salvador Garrigues; Miguel da la Guardia