By Jean Afton
At Summit Springs, Colorado on July eleven, 1869, Maj Eugene A. Carr led the 5th usa Cavalry and a strength of Pawnee scouts in an assault on leader Tall Bull's Cheyenne puppy Soldier village. additionally famous within the struggle used to be leader of scouts, William F. "Buffalo invoice" Cody. whilst the day's struggling with was once over, fifty-two Cheyenne puppy infantrymen lay lifeless. On that day, too, a soldier picked up what seemed to be a undeniable military ledgerbook. whilst opened, the publication published web page upon web page of coloured drawings - all rendered by means of Cheyenne warrior-artists. The publication got here to the Colorado old Society in 1903, and there it remained for almost 100 years, principally unknown or forgotten. formerly. operating in shut organization with Cheyenne humans, the authors have produced an exceptional examine the puppy infantrymen, treating those ledger drawings as historic files - because the heritage of the puppy infantrymen by way of the warrior-artists themselves. utilizing Cheyenne assets - either earlier and current - in addition to U.S. army files, criminal depositions, diaries, and modern newspaper money owed, the authors learn drawings, picking out the soldiers and describing the activities depicted. With multiple hundred superbly reproduced colour drawings, this quantity offers not just a groundbreaking departure from normal ledgerbook interpretation but in addition a riveting tale of the Cheyenne puppy squaddies creating a final stand for his or her life as a unfastened humans.
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Extra resources for Cheyenne Dog Soldiers: A Ledgerbook History of Coups and Combat
We thank, as well, Steve Brady of Lame Deer, Montana, chair of the Northern Cheyenne Sand Creek Descendants, who offered his insights into the warrior-artist drawings. Other Cheyenne people who contributed to the project are: Joe Big Medicine (Longdale, Oklahoma), Gideon Bison (El Reno, Oklahoma), James Black (Watonga, Oklahoma), Gilbert Brady (Lame Deer, Montana), Luke Brady (Lame Deer, Montana), Ray Brady (Lame Deer, Montana), Ruby Bushyhead (El Reno, Oklahoma), Elmer Fighting Bear (Lame Deer, Montana), William Fletcher (Clinton, Oklahoma), Harriet Little Bird (Northern Cheyenne Reservation, Montana), Charles Little Coyote (Medicine Lodge, Kansas), Merlin Little Thunder (Tulsa, Oklahoma), Lee Lone Bear (Lame Deer, Montana), George Night Owl (Clinton, Oklahoma), Mildred Red Cherries (Lame Deer, Montana), Arleigh Rhoads (Clinton, Oklahoma), Holda Roundstone (Lame Deer, Montana), John Sipes (Clinton, Oklahoma), Charles Sooktis, Jr.
The second step was to determine the warrior-artists by analyzing each drawingor plateon the basis of three stylistic criteria: treatment of Page xxii the warrior, the warrior's horse, and the warrior's enemy. One procedure in this respect was to analyze each of these criteria independently based on a known characteristic of horse, warrior, and enemy, and to relate each to a temporary model or prototype determined by a designated drawing. A match of all three criteria in a drawing compared against the prototype offered working evidence that the same artist drew both, while anomalies restricted to only one element pointed either to artistic variations or the work of two different artists.
A method of orally recounting these brave deeds developed that led to a strict moral code of ethics and honesty in which enhancing or falsifying one's heroic acts was prohibited. Indeed, the recounting of coup also served to corroborate the warrior's deed and provide a social check on his veracity. A natural evolution from oral rendition to pictorial depiction followed, and a warrior was permitted to display his feats of honor and bravery on his robe, lodge, and tipi liner. Even from their initial contacts with white explorers and artists, the Plains Indians were made aware of other materials used to create representational artpencils, pens, crayon, charcoal, horsehair brushes, canvas, paper, and drawing books.
Cheyenne Dog Soldiers: A Ledgerbook History of Coups and Combat by Jean Afton