By Richard S. Snell
Prepared classically via process, this renowned textual content offers scientific and health and wellbeing professions scholars an entire, clinically orientated creation to neuroanatomy. every one bankruptcy starts with transparent ambitions, contains medical situations, and ends with scientific notes, scientific problem-solving, and evaluate questions. hundreds and hundreds of full-color illustrations, diagnostic photos, and colour pictures improve the text.
This 7th version positive factors new info concerning the various elements of the cranium to the mind components, elevated assurance of mind improvement and neuroplasticity, and up to date info on stem mobilephone research.
A spouse site comprises the totally searchable textual content and 454 USMLE-style evaluation questions with solutions and factors.
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Antigens may have multiple epitopes, some of which are immunodominant. • Adjuvants may be mixed with antigen to nonspecifically enhance the immune response. • Antibodies are Y-shaped units composed of two identical heavy and two identical light chains. • The chains of an antibody molecule have globular domain structure with distinct function ascribed to each domain. • Antibodies bind antigenic epitopes, activate complement and bind cellular receptors. • The five classes of antibody (IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD and IgE) have a distinct structure, anatomical distribution and function.
A related event is that of immune adherence, a process that is of great importance in clearing particulate antigen from the bloodstream. 11a 35 circulating antigen that is coated with C3b (with or without antibody) to attach to the surface membrane of red cells. As these antigen-laden red cells pass through the hepatic sinusoids and spleen, they encounter phagocytic cells resident in those tissues that bind the antigen via their own CRs and remove the antigen from the red cells for internalization and destruction.
5 1 Two IGHA genes are recognized in man, but only one in other species. 2 Subclasses of IgM are not recognized. indd 20 4/4/14 10:00 AM A n t ig e n s A nd A n t ib o d i e s Humans have two IgA subclasses encoded by distinct IgA heavy chain (IGHA) genes and rabbits have 13 such genes, most of which produce functional protein. In contrast, other domestic animals have a single IGHA gene, but genetic variation in the hinge region of the IgA heavy chain gene has been identified in pigs, sheep and dogs, which may translate into functionally distinct IgA proteins.
Clinical Neuroanatomy by Richard S. Snell