By Bernd Heine
The most functionality of language is to exhibit which means. hence, argues Bernd Heine in those pages, the query of why language is dependent how it is needs to firstly be replied as regards to this functionality. Linguistic factors provided by way of different exponents of language constitution (for instance, syntax) are inclined to spotlight peripheral or epi-phenomenal--rather than central--characteristics of language constitution. Heine offers an excellent introductory remedy of the ways that language constitution (that is, grammar) and language utilization may be defined on the subject of the tactics underlying human conceptualization and communication.Exploring a space of linguistics that has built just recently and is swiftly increasing, Cognitive Foundations of Grammar will attract scholars of linguistics, psychology, and anthropology, particularly these attracted to grammaticalization processess.
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Ignoring "marginal exceptions" like onomatopoeia or instances like French dix-neuf, which are relatively motivated and hence are arbitrary to a certain degree only, Saussure says that a name reveals nothing about the nature of the entity named. 1). This is an important assumption but, as many will agree, also a controversial one. It becomes less controversial if one adds, as we did in chapter 1, that our concern is exclusively with genetic motivation—that is, no claim is made here regarding either structural or psychological motivation.
In the course of time, this phonological change may have the effect that that expression comes to be associated with two different forms occurring in mutually exclusive environments: one form in X and the other in Y. 28 COGNITIVE FOUNDATIONS OF GRAMMAR Third, another possible answer has to do with the choice of source models. As we saw above, the body-part model provides by far the most popular template for creating numeral bases. Since this model takes the human fingers and toes as counting units, it is most effective for creating numerals up to '20'.
I will return to this issue further after discussion of some of the diversity that exists in the world's languages for expressing numeral concepts. Consider the following example. Mamvu, a central African Nilo-Saharan language, has the paradigm of cardinal numerals as sketched in table 2-1. These are not the only forms cardinal numerals may take; however, there is some variation in forms that is not relevant for our purposes. No numerals beyond 100 appear to exist. Five of the numerals—that is, '1' to '5' (plus the item madya figuring in the numeral '16')—are etymologically opaque; no information on their genesis exists.
Cognitive Foundations of Grammar by Bernd Heine