By L. F. Pau (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1461278414

ISBN-13: 9781461278412

ISBN-10: 1461305071

ISBN-13: 9781461305071

DEFECT share OF DETECTION preliminary cost DETECTION fee INSPECTOR three COMPLEXITY OF instances PAN OF acting o~ ________________________ o~ ______________________ __ -;. INSPECTION activity -;. visible INSPECTION Fagure 1. developments in kin among the complexity of inspection initiatives, disorder detection premiums (absolute and relative), and inspection time. without reference to the prerequisites defined above, and with the excep­ tion of particular wide-spread program platforms (e.g., bare-board PCB inspection, wafer inspection, solder joint inspection, linewidth degree­ ment), imaginative and prescient structures are nonetheless no longer came across often in modern day electronics factories. in addition to price, a few significant purposes for this absence are: 1. The detection robustness or accuracy remains to be inadequate. 2. the full inspection time is usually too excessive, even though this may often be attributed to mechanical dealing with or sensing. three. There are continual gaps between procedure engineers, CAD en­ gineers, production engineers, try experts, and computing device imaginative and prescient experts, as difficulties dominate the daily interac­ tions and stop the institution of belief. four. machine imaginative and prescient experts occasionally nonetheless think that their contributions are common, in order that edition to every genuine challenge turns into tedious, or stumbles over the inadequate availabIlity of multidisciplinary services. no matter if we adore it or now not, we needs to nonetheless use applicable sensors, lights, and combina­ tions of algorithms for every category of functions; likewise, we can't layout mechanical dealing with, illumination, and sensing in isolation from every one other.

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RG 630 z ,jCx tumcd .. " Scanning . Mirror M Objective Object I' I L. J Figure IS. Laser scan microscope (LSM) and beam path. ) 41 Imaging Microscopes Scon Generator Variable TondemAmplifier Scanner Driver X Galvanometer-Scanner x Scanner Driver y COlvO nometer- Scan" er y 'VideoAmplifier Difference Figure 16. Laser scan microscope (LSM) electronics. ) x 16,000 with, for example, scanning argon ion confocal laser microscopes. The digitized video signal can be processed as a 512 x 512 or 1024 x 1024 pixel image, with a frame repetition period of 2-64 s (Figure 18).

16 Chapter 1 Sparse scanning may be necessitated by data-compression requirements, both for transmission and feature extraction. Coarse sampling is also desirable to limit memory size, but some interpolation algorithm is necessary, of which the best is linear interpolation with slight oversampling (see Algorithm Geom-2). If high spatial resolution is required, accentuation by a postfilter often improves image quality (Algorithm LUT-l). A useful method here is to compute the space-dependent error function due to the scanning, sampling, and quantization, with interpolation/reconstruction by a lowpass filter close to the ideal filter.

The tests include: • Camera and lens calibration (see Algorithm Calib-1). • Dot reproducibility. Vision System Components • • • • • ScannerI sensor reproducibility. Positional accuracy. Autoregistration reproducibility (see Chapter 15). Data base-to-board registration verification. "Golden board" or reference mask reproducibility (see Algorithm TempI-I). 7. 1). 1. )(n - r)! where n is the defect sample size, r is the number of defects detected in the sample of size n, p is the true fraction of defects in the population of items, and (rln) is the apparent probability of detection.

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Computer Vision for Electronics Manufacturing by L. F. Pau (auth.)

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