By Andrew Carnie
This publication explores the empirical and theoretical points of constituent constitution in typical language syntax. It surveys a wide selection of functionalist and formalist theoretical ways, from dependency grammars and Relational Grammar to Lexical sensible Grammar, Head-driven word constitution Grammar, and Minimalism. It describes the conventional checks for constituency and the formal potential for representing them in word constitution grammars, prolonged word constitution grammars, X-bar conception, and set theoretic naked word constitution. In doing so it offers a transparent, thorough, and rigorous axiomatic description of the structural houses of constituent bushes. Andrew Carnie considers the principal controversies on constituent constitution. Is it, for instance, a primitive suggestion or may still or not it's derived from relational or semantic shape? Do sentences have a unmarried constituency or a number of constituencies? Does constituency function on unmarried or a number of dimensions? And what precisely is the categorial content material of constituent constitution representations? He identifies issues of commonality in addition to vital theoretical adjustments one of the numerous ways to constituency, and significantly examines the strengths and obstacles of competing frameworks. this can be a fantastic creation for graduate scholars and complicated undergraduates. it's also a useful reference for theoretical linguists of all persuasions in departments of linguistics, cognitive technology, computational technological know-how, and comparable fields.
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14 preliminaries This ‘‘language’’ has a grammar where the number of as is identical to the number of bs. (anbn, n > 0). Since Wnite state automata cannot ‘‘remember’’ old states, (they only have access to the current state), the grammar cannot remember how many as were present, and thus will not necessarily stop when the correct number of bs are produced. We know that human languages do have a ‘‘memory’’. Lasnik (2000:15) gives a real language example, which he attributes to Morris Halle. This mini ‘‘language’’ is seen in (14).
9 This is Problem 3. He illustrates this with the phenomenon of subject-aux inversion (SAI): (18) (a) Mary has gone. (b) Has Mary gone? As a Wrst hypothesis, we might argue that the general procedure here is to invert the Wrst two words in the sentence (such a formalization would be consistent with concatenation view of syntax). But this hypothesis is easily disproved: (19) (a) The man has gone. (b) *Man the has gone? So instead, we might hypothesize that what happens is that we move the Wrst auxiliary verb to the beginning of the sentence.
This kind of approach imports the insights of various versions of Dependency Grammar (see Chapter 9 for discussion of these approaches). 12 It is worth clarifying a bit of terminology at this point. People frequently use the terms ‘‘constituent’’ and ‘‘phrase’’ interchangeably. The reason for this is quite simple: all phrases are constituents and most constituents are phrases. However, as we will see later in 18 preliminaries Thomas de Erfurt’s Grammatica Speculativa (c. g. BloomWeld 1933; for a history of the idea, see Seuren 1998 and Newmeyer 1986).
Constituent Structure by Andrew Carnie