By R. M. M. Oberman (auth.)

ISBN-10: 134981363X

ISBN-13: 9781349813636

ISBN-10: 1349813656

ISBN-13: 9781349813650

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The circuits of these counters are slightly more complicated than those of the counters of figures 2-1 and 2-2 because they contain load circuits and slightly more complicated carry circuits. Moreover in these circuits ex-OR gates are not always shown as ex-OR gates but as AND-OR gates. The most complicated of these commercially available binary counters, updown counter SN74S169 is shown in figure 2-3 in a slightly simplified form. 'fp X, Vi ud Zj load a. I, Figure 2-3 Synchronous binary up-down counter SN74S169 20 COUNTING AND COUNTERS Gates 14 to 17 inc1usive of this circuit connect data inputs Wi, Xi, Yi, and zi with the correspondingly named D flip-flops.

The clocked load and clear functions of binary counters give two practical features in the use of these counters. These counters with n sections are designed to run through all consecutive 2n code words with n bits. However, in many applications a shorter cycle is desired. As is shown in the block diagram of figure 2-11, the end of the counting cycle can be indicated by means of an external NAND gate. [2] In figure 2-11 a this end is WoXo = 1310, and in figure 2-11 b this end is WoZ o = H}t o· In the first block diagram, the output of NAND gate I is connected with the load input so that wixiYiZi = 310 will be loaded on the next clock or counting pulse

Stopping may be useful if the counting process has to yield a correct counting result, as might be necessary, for example, in a packing process of bottles in a crate. However, if the counting process is used as a divide-by-N operation controlling another switching process, it might be useful if the counter reaches the main counting cycle as quickly as possible to resume the divide-by-N process. ; 0 0 d 0 I\.! 0 0 0 0 d 0 0 d 0 Tw = xyz +wz T. = yz Ty = wz Figure 2-16 Kamaugh maps of 4-bit BCD counter with J-K flip-flops 33 BINARY COUNTERS Figure 2-17 Operating diagram of 4-bit BCD counter with J-K flip-flops reaching the six redundant states.

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Counting and Counters by R. M. M. Oberman (auth.)

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