By Geoffrey Bourne (Eds.)
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Extra info for Cytology and Cell Physiology
C. MITOCHONDRIA 1. Isolation and Identification of Mitochondria T h e isolation of mitochondria was first reported by Bensley and Hoerr (1934) from suspensions of guinea pig liver disrupted in isotonic saline. T h e details of this procedure were not published until consider ably later (Hoerr, 1943), however, and in the meantime Claude (1941) described the isolation of "large granules" which were believed to be mixtures of mitochondria and secretory granules. In a reinvestigation of the latter work, it was found by Hogeboom et al.
Adsorption or absorp tion, leakage of materials from subcellular organelles, morphological alterations, and redistribution are among those that might be men tioned. All of these problems can, however, be studied in a positive 22 WALTER C. SCHNEIDER AND EDWARD L. KUFF manner and need not serve as an a priori basis for dismissing cell frac tionation as a cytochemical tool. T h e question of morphological and cytological alteration should be considered first because it is the first grounds on which cell frac tionation can be criticized and is the most susceptible to direct exami nation.
Other instances which might be cited to show how adsorption was recognized include the enzymes deoxyribonuclease, ribonuclease, and fumarase (Schneider and Hogeboom, 1952b; Kuff, 1954). A consideration of the quantitative aspects of the intracellular dis tribution of substances can also have a decided bearing upon whether they are interpreted to be adsorbed or not. For example, if it can be shown that a large fraction of the total enzymatic activity of a tissue is associated with a subcellular component after its isolation, adsorption would seem unlikely, especially if the enzymatic activity was tightly bound by the subcellular element and retained during numerous wash ings in various media designed to remove adsorbed material.
Cytology and Cell Physiology by Geoffrey Bourne (Eds.)