By Oecd

ISBN-10: 9264010149

ISBN-13: 9789264010147

ISBN-10: 9264010157

ISBN-13: 9789264010154

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The, at least temporary, free movement of business people, technicians, policy makers and others is necessary for the smooth functioning of the global economy. Concerns about security, which impose costs on such movement whether by making travel more tedious, visas more expensive or the position of foreigners less comfortable while abroad, are a subtle but deep threat to the efficiency of the global economy. Some services require the movement of people as service providers, the so-called Mode 4 of the General Agreement of Trade in Services (GATS).

Moreover, in some areas, notably medicine, there may be pressing humanitarian reasons why poor people in low-income countries should have access to products whose price reflects patented IPRs. The challenge is to balance the need to reward innovators with the benefits of low-cost availability of new products. Developing countries are often at a disadvantage in protecting their legal rights in other countries. An example is anti-dumping legislation. The threat of an antidumping investigation often encourages poor countries to negotiate a disadvantageous “voluntary” restraint on their exports, whereas rich country exporters will hire lawyers to defend their interests.

International financial markets took time to recover from the debacles of the 1920s and 1930s. Even among OECD member countries, capital mobility was only gradually restored in the 1950s and 1960s, and the last capital controls within the European Union were not removed until the early 1990s. Few non-OECD countries had access to international financial markets until the 1970s and the double-edged experience of sovereign borrowers during that decade warranted caution by both borrowers and lenders through the following decade.

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Development Dimension Fostering Development in a Global Economy: A Whole of Government Perspective by Oecd

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