By Carolyn Rovee-Collier, C.-W. Gary Shyi (auth.), Mark L. Howe PhD, Charles J. Brainerd, Valerie F. Reyna PhD (eds.)
For a couple of a long time now the examine of kid's reminiscence improvement, with few exceptions, has been synonymous with the improvement of professional cesses that bring about the preliminary encoding and fast retention of informa tion. even supposing there's little question that the learn of such acquisition professional cesses is vital to realizing reminiscence improvement, the long term retention of formerly encoded info represents at the least as vital an element of kid's reminiscence. certainly, as either scholars of reminiscence improvement and educators, our curiosity is within the upkeep and utiliza tion of data over massive sessions of time, not only within the immedi ate (e. g. , school room) context. sincerely, then, with out an figuring out of the way lately received details is maintained in reminiscence over prolonged sessions of time, our theories of long term reminiscence improvement stay incomplete at top. even supposing kid's forgetting and memory used to be a subject matter of inquiry early during this century, it is just lately, due partially to the present controversy about the reliability of kid's eyewitness testimony, that the examine of long term retention has resurfaced within the clinical literature. the aim of this quantity is to attract jointly a number of the principals considering this resurgence to summarize their fresh learn courses, current new and formerly unpublished findings from their labs, and description the problems they think are vital within the examine of kid's long term retention.
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16, F) at the time of testing, leaving it "blank," infants' retention was excellent, but the blank liner was not an effective reminder 3 weeks later, when forgetting was complete. 16. The training and test patterns used to study the specificity of encoding for contextual attributes at 6 months (see also Figure LIb). 1. Long-Term Retention in Infancy 31 contextual support may be required to recover a memory once all of its components have become inaccessible than to retrieve a newly acquired memory with components that are still highly accessible as, for example, 24 hr after training.
Because infants' memories are so readily modified and this modification may weaken earlier and/or unused components of the original memory, the original memory may eventually become unavailable for retrieval. The findings from our research are consistent with proposals that memory traces are mutable (Brainerd, Reyna, Howe, & Kingma, 1990; Howe & Brainerd, 1989; Loftus & Loftus, 1980) and, at a minimum, indicate that both storage factors and retrieval factors must be considered in any adequate account of infant long-term retention.
This result is consistent with findings from adult research that increasing the variability among encountered exemplars expands the range of novel items classified as category members (Flannagan, Fried, & Holyoak, 1986; Fried & Holyoak, 1984). It also suggests that infants as young as 3 months may have the ability to respond analogically in new situations on the basis of information acquired in the past. Having encountered one highly physically dissimilar object (butterfly) that was functionally similar to the training mobiles, infants may have hypothesized that another highly physically dissimilar object (rainbow) suspended over their cribs might also function in the same way and produced the learned response in an attempt to make it move.
Development of Long-Term Retention by Carolyn Rovee-Collier, C.-W. Gary Shyi (auth.), Mark L. Howe PhD, Charles J. Brainerd, Valerie F. Reyna PhD (eds.)