By M. Vainberg
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Additional resources for Electrical Shocks: Safety-regulated Criteria
It is important to note that the amount of Ca2ϩ released from the SR with each action potential is not sufficient to fully occupy all of the troponin C-binding sites. Therefore, any manipulation that leads to an enhanced cytosolic Ca2ϩ during systole will result in a more complete activation of the filaments and thus stronger muscle contraction. The Ca2ϩ fluxes can, in turn, be altered by a variety of physiological control systems, such as the sympathetic nerves working through the ͱ adrenergic receptors.
Gen. Physiol. 78, 383–411. Cranefield, P. F. (1977). Action potentials, afterpotentials, and arrhythmias. Circ. Res. 41, 415–423. Frank, O. (1959). On the dynamics of cardiac muscle (translated by C. B. Chapman and E. Wasserman). Am. Heart J. 58, 282– 378. Gordon, A. , Huxley, A. , and Julian, F. J. (1966). The variation in isometric tension with sarcomere length in vertebrate muscle fibres. J. Physiol. ) 184, 170–192. , and Dexter, L. (1971). New technique for determining instantaneous myocardial force-velocity relations in the intact heart.
5. It is important to note that these curves are incrementally linear, meaning that although the relationships are straight, they do not pass through the origin. Data dem- III. BLOOD FLOW CONTROL A. Basic Characteristics of Coronary Blood Flow Control Under physiological circumstances, coronary blood flow is well adapted to the metabolic needs of the heart. Despite the fact that coronary arterial pressure is the driving pressure for coronary flow, limited changes in FIGURE 4 Autoregulation curves at different levels of oxygen consumption.
Electrical Shocks: Safety-regulated Criteria by M. Vainberg