By Maurizio Gasperini
The traditional cosmological photograph of our Universe rising from a 'big bang' leaves open many basic questions which string thought, a unified conception of all forces of nature, might be capable of resolution. the 1st booklet devoted to string cosmology, it includes a pedagogical creation to the elemental notions of the topic. It describes the recent attainable eventualities instructed through string concept for the primordial evolution of our Universe. It discusses the most phenomenological effects of those situations, stresses their changes from one another, and compares them to the extra traditional versions of inflation. The ebook summarises over 15 years of study during this box and introduces present advances. it truly is self-contained, so it may be learn by means of astrophysicists without wisdom of string idea, and high-energy physicists with little knowing of cosmology. exact and particular derivations of the entire effects provided offer a deeper appreciation of the topic.
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At the classical level, the space-time cannot be extended beyond a singuarity, and this implies that the time t = 0 (the so-called “big-bang” singularity) should be interpreted, within the standard cosmological model, as the beginning of space-time, and as the birth of the Universe itself. This conclusion could be avoided if some drastic modification of the standard scenario were to take place before reaching the initial singularity. e. on a classical theory which is not guaranteed to be valid when the space-time curvature becomes large in Planck units, and the Universe enters the quantum gravity regime.
E. at early enough cosmological epochs). These 20 A short review of standard and inflationary cosmology primordial modifications lead to the introduction of the so-called inflationary scenario, which will be illustrated in the next section. 2 The inflationary cosmological model The present observed values of the cosmological parameters, if taken as initial conditions to evolve our Universe backward in time according to the standard picture, lead us to a primordial state characterized by somewhat “unnatural” properties, even without reaching the initial singularity.
In this approach the initial values of the scalar field are randomly distributed over different space-time regions, and those regions are characterized by different degrees of homogeneity with respect to the horizon scale. If, in some region, the scalar field happens to be sufficiently homogeneous, sufficiently large (in Planck units) and displaced from the minimum, then a phase of slow-roll inflation is triggered, and that initial region can evolve towards a configuration similar to the Universe in which we are living.
Elements of String Cosmology by Maurizio Gasperini