By Harlow Giles Unger

ISBN-10: 0816068879

ISBN-13: 9780816068876

The one accomplished connection with the improvement and current kingdom of yank schooling, "Encyclopedia of yank schooling, 3rd version" contains greater than 2,000 entries spanning the colonial interval to the current. This authoritative three-volume reference presents a wealth of knowledge on nearly each point of schooling, from the evolution of faculty curriculum, schooling investment, and church-state controversies to the most recent debates on multiculturalism, prayer at school, and intercourse schooling. writer Harlow G. Unger, one of many country's most advantageous schooling specialists, has considerably up-to-date current entries and extra greater than forty new entries. Appendixes contain major federal laws, vital U.S. best courtroom judgements, and lists of undergraduate majors and graduate institution courses. greater than 10 new photos were extra to this variation, and greater than part a dozen specialists in schooling served as editorial experts for this encyclopedia.

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By the end of the war, government control and sponsorship of on-campus research had grown so pervasive and so financially rewarding to university communities that few administrators were willing to test Washington’s right to control what 6 academic freedom campus researchers did, said or wrote. The cold war seemed to make continuation of such controls necessary for security reasons if nothing else. Ironically, it was government, even as it insisted on secrecy, that was instrumental in opening university halls to a degree of academic freedom never before tolerated.

At the other extreme are a number of exclusive private schools and public schools in wealthy communities, where school facilities rival those of many colleges, and students go about their daily work purposefully and pay careful attention in class. At least 85% and often 100% of the students go on to four-year colleges. They take five or six subjects each semester and do two to three hours of homework each night. Academically high-quality high schools usually require students to study four years each of English, mathematics and history, three years each of science and foreign languages and two years each of music and art.

In lowering their academic standards to allow students to earn promotion to higher grades, however, many states unwittingly plunged their students into an abyss of near ILLITERACY and INNUMERACY. Although 90% of Idaho’s fourth graders (nine-year-old) exhibited proficiency in mathematics on the state tests, NAEP found only 41% of them proficient on its tests. New York claimed that 85% of its nine-year-olds met its standards of proficiency in mathematics, but only 36% exhibited proficiency on the federal test.

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Encyclopedia of American Education by Harlow Giles Unger

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