By Bard A.J., Stratmann M., Schafer H.J.
Writing for pros in addition to scholars, editors Schafer (chemistry, U. of Munster), Bard (chemistry, U. of Texas at Austin), Stratmann (corrosive technological know-how and floor engineering, U, of Erlangen) and individuals learn quite a lot of issues in the box of natural electrochemistry, together with examine on purposes in different fields reminiscent of inorganic and natural compounds and organic platforms. Article subject matters contain tips on how to examine mechanisms of electroorganic reactions; sensible features of preparative scale electrolysis; comparisons of chemical and electrochemical equipment in natural synthesis; catholic reactions of hydrocarbons, olefins, and fragrant compounds; anodic reactions of alkanes, alkenes, and fragrant compounds; oxidation (and aid) of oxygen-containing compounds, and of halogen-containing compounds; electrochemistry of nitrogen-containing compounds; electrosynthesis of usual items, superb chemical substances, and prescription drugs; electrochemistry of heterocycles; selectivity in electrochemical reactions; electrogenerated acids and bases; oblique electrochemical reactions; and carrying out polymers.
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry, Organic Chemistry
Under such conditions – that is, missing clearly separated electrode potentials – concurrent reactions will occur. In consequence, only a poor selectivity of the electrode reactions is to be expected and well-optimized reaction conditions will be indispensable. 3 Principles of Electrochemical Cell Operation potential and current density. Additional overvoltages are caused by the resistance of the electrolyte and of the separator in a divided cell. Although these overvoltages are not parts of the electrode potentials, they have to be surpassed in order to enable a current in the cell and they enhance the heat evolution in the cell.
The mostly applied porous separator in laboratory cells is sintered glass (‘‘fritted glass’’). It can be simply and leakproof mounted by the glassblower into the walls of glass cells and then it is very easy to handle. 1 or pottery – with various porosity, pore diameter, and thickness. As glass or ceramic diaphragms are rigid and brittle, for adequate mechanical solidity in larger cells they need an increased thickness, causing a high voltage drop. Glass and some ceramic materials will be attacked by strongly alkaline media.
E. yield and selectivity will be reduced), it is necessary to avoid any overstepping of the limiting current density. Especially in case of changing conditions (batch operation) with a rising degree of conversion – here, the most signiﬁcant parameter will be the decreasing reactant concentration – a continuous adjustment of the current density is indispensable. Then it will be better to work at a constant electrode potential than at constant cell current (see Sect. 3). In the example of Fig. 1, the potential differences are so large that clearly discriminated reactions can be realized.
Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry, Organic Chemistry by Bard A.J., Stratmann M., Schafer H.J.