By Michael Allaby

ISBN-10: 0816063508

ISBN-13: 9780816063505

The most physique of the encyclopedia includes authoritative entries describing techniques akin to cloud formation, atmospheric phenomena resembling rainbows, and a few of the innovations and tools used to review the ambience, in addition to the devices of dimension that scientists use. The large insurance additionally contains the category platforms which are used for weather forms, winds, and clouds. Ten appendixes include valuable supplementary fabric comparable to biographical notes on scientists and lists of the main critical tropical cyclones and tropical storms, climate mess ups, and milestones in atmospheric learn. those available appendixes additionally contain chronologies, the geologic time scale, SI devices and conversions, and extra.

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The table above lists several examples of albedos at green visible-light and infrared wavelengths. Calculations of the amount of energy that a surface absorbs must take account of the variation of albedo with wavelength. Regardless of wavelength, absorbed radiation is converted to heat, but a measure of the albedo of a surface in visible light does not give a reliable value from which to calculate the warming effect of sunlight. Whether it is wet or dry, sand is more highly reflective at infrared than at shorter wavelengths, and whether it is clean or dirty, ice absorbs more strongly in infrared than in green radiation wavelengths.

Collectively, atmospheric particles are known as aerosols. Small particles can be harmful to health when they are inhaled, because they are able to penetrate deep into the lungs. Particles that are less than 25 µm in diameter, known as PM25, are believed to cause a number of respiratory illnesses and even smaller particles, 10 µm in size (PM10), are also suspected of causing harm that may be even more serious. Soot consists of solid particles, composed mainly of carbon, which are emitted when a carbon-based fuel 18 air pollution is burned in such a way that not all of the hydrocarbons are fully oxidized.

This is possibly the highest air pollution level ever recorded anywhere in the world. The arrival of a brief rainy season in November damped down the fires, but they broke out again in January and continued until May 1998. On April 30, the authorities in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, hosed down the city from the roofs of skyscrapers in order to wash the smog and particulate matter from the air. The London smog incidents were two episodes in London, England, each of which lasted for several days, during which very wet smog was trapped beneath a temperature inversion.

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Encyclopedia of Weather and Climate, 2-Volume Set by Michael Allaby

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