By edited by Bruce A. White, Susan P. Porterfield.

ISBN-10: 0323087043

ISBN-13: 9780323087049

Advent to the endocrine process --
Endocrine functionality of the gastrointestinal tract --
Energy metabolism --
Calcium and phosphate homeostasis --
Hypothalamus-pituitary complicated --
The thyroid gland --
The adrenal gland --
Life cycle of the female and male reproductive method --
The male reproductive procedure --
The lady reproductive procedure --
Fertilization, being pregnant, and lactation.

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Thus, steroid hormones cannot be stored in secretory vesicles. Steroid production is regulated at the level of synthesis. Several steroid hormones are produced to a significant extent by peripheral conversion of precursors. n Circulate bound to transport proteins. Steroid hormones are cleared by enzymatic modifications that increase their solubility in blood and decrease their affinity for transport proteins. Steroid hormones and their inactive metabolites are excreted in the urine. n Act through intracellular receptors, which are members of the nuclear hormone receptor family.

Circulating motilin levels peak every 1 to 2 hours in fasting individuals, in phase with the MMC. The MMC is a set of organized contractions that move aborally from the stomach to the ileum and clean the stomach and small intestines of indigestible particles. The MMC may also prevent the colonic bacteria from migrating into the small intestine. Motilin may function to either initiate or integrate the MMC. The motilin receptor is a GPCR that activates the phospholipase C signaling pathway. The motilin receptor also binds and is activated by the macrolide antibiotic, erythromycin (see Table 2-2).

Contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi (surrounds the hepatopancreatic ampulla) allows bile to flow down the common bile duct into the duodenum. Pancreatic enzymes and bicarbonate reach the duodenum via larger and larger ducts that eventually form the main pancreatic duct. This duct joins the common bile duct just before it reaches the duodenum, to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla. Inset shows a higher magnification of the exocrine pancreas. The termini of the secretory units are the pancreatic acini, which secrete enzymes.

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Endocrine and reproductive physiology by edited by Bruce A. White, Susan P. Porterfield.

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