By Geoffrey N. Leech
The purpose of this e-book is to teach the best way ahead to a coherent view of language during which the fulfillment of the formalist paradigm is reinforced to the level that its claims are weakened. a proper idea reminiscent of generative grammar is a unique conception that is to be subsumed in a normal concept of linguistic communique that still contains pragmatics. the stress among the psycho-formalist and the socio-functional perspectives should be resolved in a synthesis wherein either the mental and social natures of language are absolutely stated. Semantics and pragmatics, representing those natures within the learn of that means, have exact pursuits, which might be outlined extra sincerely and pursued extra successfully to the level that either their distinctness and their interdependence are well-known.
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Extra info for Explorations in Semantics and Pragmatics
We can overlook, for the present purpose, the view that 'ASK' has imperative force, and that a question is semantically a sub-category of commands - NATURAL LANGUAGE AS METALANGUAGE 41 see the treatment of the semantics of questions on pp. c. c. ]. r. g. g. whether it has posterior time reference. s which have the internal structure of propositions, but unlike statements and questions, do not implicate judgements of truth and falsehood. Thus indirect commands, suggestions, curses, wishes, etc.
Where the information focus comes at the end of the tone group, as in (21): (21) Is that your DAUGHTer ? Whereas for some special communicative purpose, the new information could be placed in an earlier position, as in (22)-(24): (22) (23) (24) Is that YOUR daughter ? Is THAT your daughter ? IS that your daughter ? Halliday treats the distinction between unmarked and marked focus as a matter of grammatical choice, but I see good reasons for reinterpret ing this distinction in terms of a maxim of end-focus: "Unless there is good reason to the contrary, place the new information after any given information in the tone-group".
G. g. 'MEAN', 'PRONOUNCE', 'BE TRUE' I i l l u s t r a t e the relations between these features i n the valency rules in Figure 1 , in which the arrow → indicates that i f the feature on the l e f t occurs, the feature(s) on the r i g h t occur(s) also. ( ) i n dicates optional arguments, / indicates a l t e r n a t i v e features of which the former i s the unmarked o p t i o n , and - - indicates the absence of an argument. c. c. ], [content] -4 -4 ([person]) -4 -4 - ([person]) ARGUMENT 2 [volitional] [dubutative] b2.
Explorations in Semantics and Pragmatics by Geoffrey N. Leech