By Michael W. Whittle

ISBN-10: 0750600454

ISBN-13: 9780750600453

An exam of a patient's skill to stroll is applied as an relief to analysis or as an evaluation of therapy. This learn offers a overview of the fundamental sciences of anatomy and body structure, and the biomechanics of ordinary and pathological gait, emphasizing scientific and medical research

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Spinal reflexes The lower motor neurons receive nerve impulses both from the brain and from other neurons within the spinal cord. The two areas of the brain chiefly concerned with posture and movement are the motor cortex, which is responsible for voluntary movement, and the cerebellum, which is responsible for generating patterns of muscular activity. Within the spinal cord itself, the influences of other neurons Basic Sciences 33 give rise to the spinal reflexes. There are also pattern generators for each limb within the spinal cord, which are capable of producing alternating flexion and extension.

Unfortunately, this definition excludes some forms of patho- Normal Gait 49 logical gait which are generally regarded as being forms of walking, such as the 'swing-through gait' (see Fig. 20), in which there is an alternate use of two crutches and either one or two legs. It is probably both pointless and unreasonable to attempt to arrive at a definition of walking which will apply to all cases - at least in a single sentence! Gait is no easier to define than walking, many dictionaries regarding it as a word primarily for use in connection with horses!

All body cells exhibit a membrane potential, but nerve and muscle cells differ from other cells in that they can manipulate it by altering the permeability of the cell membrane to sodium and potassium ions. This is the mechanism by which both nerve impulses and muscular contraction are propagated. If the membrane potential is lowered by about 20 mV, the membrane suddenly becomes extremely permeable to sodium ions, which enter rapidly from the extracellular fluid. While these ions are entering, the membrane potential is reversed to about +40mV and it is said to be depolarized.

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Gait Analysis. An Introduction by Michael W. Whittle

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