By Timothy Shopen
This detailed three-volume 2007 survey brings jointly a workforce of major students to discover the syntactic and morphological buildings of the world's languages. sincerely equipped and broad-ranging, it covers issues similar to parts-of-speech, passives, complementation, relative clauses, adverbial clauses, inflectional morphology, stressful, point, temper, and diexis. The members examine the most important ways in which those notions are discovered, and supply informative sketches of them at paintings in various languages. each one quantity is accessibly written and obviously explains every one new idea brought. even supposing the volumes should be learn independently, jointly they supply an crucial reference paintings for all linguists and fieldworkers attracted to cross-linguistic generalizations. lots of the chapters within the moment version are considerably revised or thoroughly new - a few on subject matters no longer lined through the 1st version. quantity II covers co-ordination, complementation, noun word constitution, relative clauses, adverbial clauses, discourse constitution, and sentences as mixtures of clauses.
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Extra resources for Language Typology and Syntactic Description: Volume 2, Complex Constructions
Lezgian (a Daghestanian language of the eastern Caucasus) [Ali-din]-ni [Weli-din] buba Ali-gen-and Weli-gen father ‘Ali’s and Weli’s father’ (Haspelmath (1993:326)) b. Kunuz Nubian (a Nilo-Saharan language of Egypt) [it-todon]-go:n [e:n-godon]-go:n man-com-and woman-com-and (Abdel-Hafiz (1988:277)) ‘with the man and with the woman’ However, in some languages, even case affixes can be outside the scope of the coordinator. g. g. (41b)), the wider scope of the case suffix can be seen in the absence of the case suffix on Coordination 15 the first coordinand (cf.
Ii) Pauses: in English, it is much more natural to pause before and (Joan . . Joan and . . Marvin). (iii) Discontinuous order: in special circumstances, the coordinands may be separated by other material, as when a coordinand is added as an afterthought. g. My uncle will come tomorrow, or my aunt, not *My uncle or will come tomorrow, my aunt). (iv) (Morpho)phonological alternations: when the coordinator or one of the coordinands undergoes (morpho)phonological alternations in the Coordination 9 construction, this is evidence that they form a constituent together.
However, the mixed patterns (27–28) seem to be extremely rare. In the non-mixed patterns (co-A co-B, A-co B-co), both coordinators generally have the same shape, whereas this is not the case in the mixed patterns. h`ınd´e and I and Kehinde ‘both I and Kehinde’ Coordination 11 (26) A-co B-co (Martuthunira, a Pama-Nyungan language of W. woman-pl-and ‘old men and old women’ (Dench 1995:98) (cf. also examples (5) and (24a)) (27) A-co co-B (Homeric Greek, cf. son and and Achilles ‘Atreus’s son and Achilles’ (28) co-A B-co (Latin, cf.
Language Typology and Syntactic Description: Volume 2, Complex Constructions by Timothy Shopen