By Klaus Ley (auth.), Klaus Ley M.D. (eds.)
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This may be attributable to species differences, or it may suggest that differences exist between the behavior of CD34+ cells, only a small fraction of which are HSC, and that of purified HSC. Also, it should be noted that another group did not observe differences in migration between CD34 + cells obtained from mobilized peripheral blood and CD34+ cells obtained from bone marrow. , 1995). The fact that cytokine mobilization is evolutionarily conserved suggests that a naturally occurring version of this response may have physiological significance to many species, perhaps as a way of quickly expanding and restoring hematopoiesis, for example, after consumption of myeloablative compounds (Christopher Goodnow, personal communication, 1997) or after blood loss.
1995). Rolling leukocytes can sample the endothelial microenvironment for chemokine signals. If appropriate chemokines are present, and if the right chemokine receptors are expressed on the rolling cell, a rapid signaling cascade is initiated, starting with G-proteins linked to the chemokine receptors, and including up-regulation of affinity of integrins for their endothelial ligands. The increased ligand affinity of integrins causes the cells to stop rolling. The arrested cells can then further sample the environment, and either cross the endothelial wall or not, most likely depending on whether other chemokine signals that trigger extravasation are present.
2000). The simplest explanation for these findings is that apoptosis is one of the ways in which HSC numbers are regulated, and that BCL-2 overexpression directly blocks apoptosis of HSC. It is likely that on a day-to-day basis, the maintenance of appropriate numbers of cells in each lineage is mostly effected at the level of progenitors more committed than HSC. In addition to apoptosis, numerous cytokines, such as IL-l, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-11, IL-12, monocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), G-CSF, GM-CSF, erythropoietin (EPO) , and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) have been implicated by in vitro or in vivo studies in regulation or maintenance of hematopoietic progenitors.
Physiology of Inflammation by Klaus Ley (auth.), Klaus Ley M.D. (eds.)