By Fabrício A. Rodrigues, Lawrence E. Datnoff
Silicon, thought of to be the second one so much considerable mineral aspect in soil, performs an enormous position within the mineral foodstuff of crops. a large choice of monocot and dicot species have benefited from silicon meals, no matter if direct or oblique, after they are uncovered to forms of abiotic and or biotic stresses. in addition to the various agronomic and horticultural advantages won by way of conserving sufficient degrees of this point within the soil and likewise within the plant tissue, the main remarkable impact of silicon is the relief within the intensities of a few plant illnesses as a result of biotrophic, hemibiotrophic and necrotrophic plant pathogens in lots of vegetation of serious fiscal value. the purpose of this booklet is to summarize our present figuring out of the consequences of silicon on plant illnesses. The chapters deal with the dynamics of silicon in soils and crops; the heritage of silicon within the keep an eye on of plant ailments; using silicon to regulate soil-borne, seed-borne and foliar illnesses in monocots and dicots; the mechanisms fascinated about the host resistance opposed to an infection by means of plant pathogens mediated by way of silicon in addition to the present wisdom on the omics point, and at last, highlights and customers for utilizing silicon within the future.
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Additional info for Silicon and Plant Diseases
The wheat plants treated with silicon fertilizer under drought stress had higher stomatal conductances, relative water contents, and water potentials than nontreated plants (Pei et al. 2010). The reduction in water loss through transpiration (Hattori et al. 2005) and the decreased uptake of water (Eneji et al. 2005) were attributed to the larger and thicker leaves of silicon- treated plants and to the higher silicon deposition in the cell walls of epidermal tissues (prevents excessive water loss through transpiration) and the xylem vessels (prevents compression of the vessels) than nontreated plants.
As the rate of added silicon increases, the concentration of the monosilicic acid reaches a certain point and then begins to polymerize (the formation of polysilicic acid). 99 mM silicon (Karathanasis 2002). Tan (1994) and Matichenkov and Ammosova (1994) further reported that polymerization occurs when the silicon concentration in the soil solution exceeds 65 mg L−1. At this concentration and above, a mixture of H4SiO4, polysilicic acid and silicon- organic compounds is found in the soil solution, which indicates that ~2 mM silicon is potentially the concentration at which polymerization begins (phase B).
Desplanques et al. (2006) noted that if the rice production in the fields of Camarque relied entirely on amorphous silica as the source of silicon, the reserve of plant-available silicon would be exhausted after five years of cultivation. According to Hodson et al. Nevertheless, various amounts of silicon uptake are reported for a given plant species; thus, although silicon accumulation is primarily a phylogenetic feature, the amount of plant-available silicon in the soil affects the amount of silicon that is absorbed by the plant (Deren et al.
Silicon and Plant Diseases by Fabrício A. Rodrigues, Lawrence E. Datnoff