By William E. Burns
Many are acquainted with the tips of Copernicus, Descartes, and Galileo. yet right here the reader is additionally brought to lesser recognized principles and participants to the clinical Revolution, reminiscent of the mathematical Bernoulli relations and Andreas Vesalius, whose anatomical charts revolutionized the research of the human physique. extra marginal characters contain the magician Robert Fludd. The encyclopedia additionally discusses matters like Arabic technological know-how and the weird background of blood transfusions, and associations just like the Universities of Padua and Leiden, which have been dominant forces in educational drugs and science.
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Many are acquainted with the tips of Copernicus, Descartes, and Galileo. yet the following the reader can be brought to lesser recognized principles and individuals to the medical Revolution, equivalent to the mathematical Bernoulli family members and Andreas Vesalius, whose anatomical charts revolutionized the learn of the human physique.
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National Library of Medicine) 14 Apothecaries and Pharmacology provided primary medical care, which often led them into conflict with the better organized and more powerful physicians who wanted apothecaries to simply dispense the remedies physicians prescribed. Apothecaries were usually not educated in the medical theory taught in universities, and they learned their craft by apprenticeship in the apothecaries’ guild or other organization. There were legendary quarrels between the powerful Society of Apothecaries of London, chartered in 1617, and the London College of Physicians over the right of apothecaries to practice medicine and the right of physicians to sell drugs.
The early fifteenth century saw Filippo Brunelleschi’s (1377–1446) uniquely European invention of artistic perspective (originally for architectural rather than pictorial purposes), giving the illusion of threedimensionality to a two-dimensional surface. 19 This meant many artists were interested in geometry and optical theory. As part of an overall trend toward realistic representation, there was greater interest in the proportion that different objects seen at different distances bear to each other.
Their practice was much less affected by scientific change than was that of the commercial apothecary, however. Changes in the repertoire of medical drugs available in the apothecary’s shop were driven by changes in medical theory, most notably Paracelsianism, and by the expansion of the range of drugs caused by the desire to identify “lost” drugs referred to in classical sources and by European exploration and expansion into new territories. Paracelsianism and the movement to chemical medicine encouraged the use of drugs that were the result of chemical preparations such as distillation rather than “simples”—parts of plants used in their more natural form.
The Scientific Revolution: An Encyclopedia by William E. Burns